Lunheng and Araz-Naxçıvan PFK

The Lunheng (Chinese: 論衡; pinyin: Lùnhéng; Wade–Giles: Lun-heng; literally: "discourse balance"), published in 80 CE, is a wide-ranging Chinese classic text containing critical essays by Wang Chong (27- ca. 100 CE) on natural science, Chinese mythology, philosophy, and literature.

Contents 1 Title 2 Text 3 History 4 Content 5 References 6 External links


The title Lunheng combines lun 論 or 论 "discuss; talk about; discourse; decide on; determine; mention; regard; consider" and heng 衡 "crosswise; balance beam; weigh; measure; judge; appreciate". English translations of the title include "Disquisitions" (Alfred Forke), "Critical Essays" (Fung Yu-lan), "The Balanced Inquiries" (Wing-tsit Chan), or "Discourses Weighed in the Balance" (Joseph Needham). Text

The received Lunheng comprises 85 pian 篇 "articles; sections; chapters" in 30 juan 巻 "scrolls; volumes; books", with more than 200,000 characters. Actually, 84 pian is more accurate because the text only contains the title of Chapter 44 Zhaozhi 招致.

Yang Wenchang (楊文昌) edited the first printed Lunheng edition, which was the basis for subsequent editions. Its 1045 CE preface notes that Yang compared 2 complete and 7 partial textual copies and corrected 11,259 characters.

"No commentaries to the Lun heng appear to have been written before the nineteenth century," write Pokora and Loewe (1993:311), which is unusual among Chinese classics. The first Lunheng commentators were Yu Yue (1821–1907), Sun Yirang (1848–1908), and Yang Shoujing (楊守敬, 1835–1915). History

Based on internal evidence, Forke (1907:9) concludes the Later Han Dynasty Lunheng text "must date" from the years 76-84 CE. Chapter 38 (齊世 "The Equality of the Ages", tr. Forke 1907:480) says, "Our present sage and enlightened sovereign is continuing the blessings and the prosperity of the reigns of" Emperor Guangwu (r. 25-57 CE) and Emperor Ming (r. 58-75 CE), which implies the period of Emperor Zhang (r. 75-88 CE). Chapter 30 (講瑞 "Arguments on Ominous Creatures", tr. Forke 1907:372) notes it was completed during the Jianchu 建初 era (76-84 CE).

Fung (1953:151) notes the Lunheng "was probably completed" during the years 82 and 83 CE. "The authenticity of the work has not been brought into question", write Pokora and Loewe (1993:309), and the text "may possibly have been completed between 70 and 80", based upon collections of Wang's earlier writings or essays. Content

The contents of the Lunheng are summarized by Pokora and Loewe.

In discussing natural phenomena and their implications or causes, matters of popular belief and misconception and political issues, the book is often written in polemical form. A controversial statement is made, to be followed by the author's critical rebuttal, which is often supported by quotations from earlier writings. In many ways the Lun heng may be regarded as an encyclopaedic collection of the claims and beliefs of Chinese religion, thought and folklore. (1993:313)

Wang's Lunheng frequently espouses Daoist notions of naturalism. For example, Chapter 54 Ziran 自然 "Spontaneity" says.

By the fusion of the fluids of Heaven and Earth all things of the world are produced spontaneously, just as by the mixture of the fluids of husband and wife children are born spontaneously. Among the things thus produced, creatures with blood in their veins are sensitive of hunger and cold. Seeing that grain can be eaten, they use it as food, and discovering that silk and hemp can be worn, they take it as raiment. Some people are of opinion that Heaven produces grain for the purpose of feeding mankind, and silk and hemp to cloth them. That would be tantamount to making Heaven the farmer of man or his mulberry girl , I it would not be in accordance with spontaneity, therefore this opinion is very questionable and unacceptable.

Reasoning on Taoist principles we find that Heaven emits its fluid everywhere. Among the many things of this world grain dispels hunger, and silk and hemp protect from cold. For that reason man eats grain, and wears silk and hemp. That Heaven does not produce grain, silk, and hemp purposely, in order to feed and cloth mankind, follows from the fact that by calamitous changes it does not intend to reprove man. Things are produced spontaneously, and man wears and eats them; the fluid changes spontaneously, and man is frightened by it, for the usual theory is disheartening. Where would be spontaneity, if the heavenly signs were intentional, and where inaction ? (tr. Forke 1907:92, cf. Fung 1953:152 and Chan 1963:296)

Araz-Naxçıvan PFK and Lunheng

This article is about the Nakhchivan-based football club. For the futsal club, see Araz Naxçivan.

Araz-Naxçıvan PFK (Azerbaijani: Araz-Naxçıvan Peşəkar Futbol Klubu) was an Azerbaijani football club based in Nakchivan.

The club played in the Azerbaijan Premier League again in 2014–15 after being promoted at the end of the 2013–14 season.

Contents 1 History 2 Stadium 3 League and domestic cup history 4 Supporters 5 Notable managers 6 Honours 7 References 8 External links


The club was created in 1967 and as of 1968, it participated in Soviet First League. The club stopped its activity after collapse of Soviet Union. In 2001, the team was formed again and took part in the Azerbaijan Premier League. However year later, due to financial difficulties the team again ceased to exist.

The club was re-established in 23 May 2013 and immediately joined Azerbaijan First Division. In its first season, Araz sent Simurq crashing out of the Azerbaijan Cup. In May 2014, the club earned promotion to Azerbaijan Premier League after winning the division in same season. In September 2014, Araz became linked to a match fixing scandal, the result of which saw the key players leaving the club and Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic government officials intervening.

On 3 November 2014, Araz-Naxçıvan announced their withdrawal from the league due constant biased referee decisions, with the officially announcing their withdrawal on 17 November 2014. Stadium Main article: Nakhchivan City Stadium

Araz's home ground was Nakhchivan City Stadium, which has a capacity of 12,000. For the stadium's first game, the announced attendance was 4,000. League and domestic cup history Supporters

Supporters of Araz were drawn from all over the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic and beyond Azerbaijan. The club's main two supporting groups were Ultra Araz and Nagshijahan. Notable managers For more details on this topic, see List of Araz-Naxçıvan PFK managers. Honours Azerbaijan First Division Winners (1): 2013–14
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