The second HMS Manchester was a Town-class light cruiser of the Royal Navy, belonging to the Gloucester subclass. She was laid down by Hawthorn Leslie at Hebburn in March 1936, launched in April the following year and commissioned in August 1938. She had a relatively short, but active, career.Contents 1 Early war service 2 Bismarck and the Mediterranean convoys 2.1 Sinking 3 Aftermath 4 Battle honours 5 See also 6 Notes 7 Citations 8 References 9 External linksEarly war serviceManchester was serving in the East Indies with the 4th Cruiser Squadron at the outbreak of war, but was ordered home and arrived back Britain on 25 November 1939. She subsequently served with the Home Fleet at Scapa Flow, on Northern Patrol duties, capturing the German merchantman Wahehe on 21 February 1940. She first saw action during the ill-fated Norwegian campaign in 1940, where she won her first battle honour. She was then based in the Humber for anti-invasion duties, but on 15 September sailed to the Mediterranean for Operation Collar. In 1940, Manchester, along with other Royal Navy warships, engaged an Italian cruiser squadron, in a naval action that became known as the battle of Cape Spartivento. Men smothered in fuel oil taking a breath of fresh air on HMS Manchester's flight deck, after being rescued from below deck. One of them is wearing a life preserver. Manchester had been damaged by an aerial torpedo but was not sunk Bismarck and the Mediterranean convoysManchester returned to Britain on 13 December 1940 and spent the first four months of 1941 under refit, then patrolled the Iceland-Faroes passage during the Bismarck sortie. In July she returned to the Mediterranean for an important Malta convoy, but on 23 July she was hit on the port quarter by an aerial torpedo and badly damaged. Temporary repairs were made at Gibraltar, and the ship then sailed for Philadelphia for complete repair. This was finished on 27 February 1942, after which she returned to Portsmouth, where final work was completed by the end of April. On her return to service she joined the Home Fleet at Scapa Flow during the first week of May, then carried out Russian convoy cover duties and the reinforcement of Spitzbergen. In August she returned to the Mediterranean. SinkingManchester took part in Operation Pedestal, an operation to supply the besieged island of Malta, and which cost a number of warships, including the carrier HMS Eagle. During the operation, on 13 August, she was torpedoed and disabled by two Italian motor torpedo boats and subsequently scuttled with explosive charges. She was the largest ship sunk by motor torpedo boats during the Second World War. Operation Pedestal, 11 August: A general view of the convoy under air attack showing the intense anti-aircraft barrage put up by the escorts. The battleship HMS Rodney is on the left and HMS Manchester is on the right AftermathHer commanding officer, Captain Harold Drew, was court-martialled due to the Admiralty's belief that the ship was still navigable and capable of reaching a neutral port. Captain Drew was initially led to believe that he was taking part in an enquiry, and was only informed at the end of the trial that he was in fact being charged with negligence by a court martial. He was found guilty, and was reprimanded and dismissed. It was and remains a contentious decision; the ship had been crippled, and the Captain had feared the ship, including her radar gear, might fall into enemy hands. Many of the ship's crew were rescued by an Allied warship." Others, including Nigel Malim, fell into the hands of the Vichy French and were interned at Laghouat, to be released in November as a result of Operation Torch. Notably, the surviving crew members strongly supported both Captain Drew's assessment of the ship's situation and his decision to scuttle her, with one seaman stating "We were down to 10-15% ammunition, listing at nearly 45 degrees, with one engine destroyed and not much hope of getting the other working. The Captain decided that his choices were to wait until dawn and get blown to buggery, or to save the men."In 2002, Manchester was the subject of a documentary by ITV, called "Running the Gauntlet: Sink the Manchester!".In 2009, a successful expedition to dive HMS Manchester was completed. Battle honours Norway 1940 Spartivento 1940 Malta 1942 Arctic 1942 See also Operation Pedestal Notesa. ^ There is some disagreement about Manchesters fatalities among the sources: The following websites mention 150 "lost": "Royal Navy Cruisers - Part 4". Alex's Royal Navy Page. Archived from the original on 11 July 2012. "HMS Liverpool - Town Class Light Cruisers". The Naval Ships of Victor Johns. Retrieved 27 June 2013.A more accurate account of the cruiser casualties reports 132 killed or missing and 568 survivors (rescued either by Allied forces or Vichy authorities)..Other sources only mention the deaths as result of the torpedo impact (about a dozen). . Citations ^ Malvezzi, Pierluigi. "MAS, VAS and MS". Regia Marina Italiana. Retrieved 27 June 2013. ^ "HMS Manchester". The Wartime Memories Project. Retrieved 27 June 2013. ^ Rear Admiral Nigel Malim CB LVO DL at marketrasenmail.co.uk, accessed 3 July 2013 ^ "Sleeping giant". Diver Magazine. November 2009.